Versions and History

Every record in a Twisp ledger maintains a full history of all changes applied to it. All previous versions of a record can be queried.

The Basics

Record versioning and history is the foundation of append-only immutability in the Twisp Accounting Core. All data entering the Twisp system is written as a new data record that cannot be modified. Prohibiting modification or deletion of data ensures a complete log of all changes to the system, allowing for auditable data history.

Append-only immutability is the only data storage model in the Twisp Accounting Core and cannot be disabled.

Record Versioning

Twisp stores all data within records in the storage system. Each record is assigned a unique record ID. The indexing system provides pointers to records for specific keys. For example, an accountId index points to the specific corresponding account record.

The first version of a new record is assigned version 1. When any operation needs to modify that record, a second record is written with the same unique record ID, but with version now set to 2. This pattern repeats indefinitely for every record in the system.

For a particular record, version numbers form a consecutive integer sequence. Each new version number is exactly one greater than the previous version number.

In addition to the version number, each record version contains a number of useful timestamps:

  1. created: the time the transaction began that created the first record version.
  2. modified: the time the transaction began that wrote the record version. If version is 1, modified is equal to the created timestamp.
  3. committed: the time the transaction committed that wrote the record version.

Version History

All record versions are queryable via the history API available on every object in the system. This allows for retrospective analysis, auditing, and verification of data changes over time.

Point-in-time Queries

In addition to scanning an entire record version history, Twisp provides the ability to return versions active at specific point-in-time. By specifying timestamps in the history API where filter, version history can be filtered by either the modified or committed record version timestamps.


query GetPointInTimeHistory(
  $journalGLId: UUID!
  $accountCardSettlementId: UUID!
) {
    accountId: $accountCardSettlementId
    journalId: $journalGLId
    currency: "USD"
  ) {
      first: 1
      where: { modified: { lt: "2030-04-05T17:45:55.347145Z" } }
    ) {
      nodes {
        available(layer: SETTLED) {
          normalBalance {
            formatted(as: { locale: "en-US" })
Money Formatting